I.             France

A.    Tough economic times in Europe (potato famine, high food prices, high unemployment)

B.    Louis Phillipe is apathetic and inactive

1.    he won’t address economics

2.    he won’t address election reform

3.    the people revolt

4.    Louis Philippe abdicates (steps down) & hands it over to grandson

5.    But…the people want no more monarchy.

C.    France’s Second Republic

1.    Provisional republic with a constitution

2.    Such a republic would need to have…

a.    right to vote to all adult males

b.    freed French slaves

c.    no death penalty

d.    ten-hour workday

3.    Different factions though

a.    moderate liberal republicans – felt universal male suffrage was enough

b.    radical republicans – called for some socialism (Louis Blanc & Albert)

                                                                                          i.    want right to work, gov’t cooperatives, noncompetitive workshops

4.    French go to the polls April 1848 & elect Constituent Assembly

a.    It’s a legislature with 500 moderates, 300 monarchists, 100 radicals

5.    Alexis de Tocqueville (social observer) says socialism was the key to the revolution in Paris at this point

a.    de Tocqueville says the peasants in the land want a republic and hate the radical Parisian socialists

b.    Socialists try to take-over in Constituent Assembly

c.    Uprising squelched and national workshops closed. This led to…

6.    More uprisings in Paris (people in Paris vs. the army)

a.    “June Days” – 3 days of killing 10,000+ people

D.   Results

1.    The revolution got crushed (neither republican nor socialists)

2.    Constituent Assembly held on with strong executive power

3.    Louis Napoleon (Nap. Bonaparte’s nephew) elected. He is liked by the propertied class who want order. Is semi-authoritarian.

II.           Austria

A.    The bottom line…

1.    News of revolution from France stirs excitement.

2.    Liberals – want changes: written constitutions, representation, civil liberties

a.    Monarchs wimped out and gave in. Oddly, this meant the revolutionary movement fizzled.

b.    Then, the monarch/aristocrats/army re-grouped

B.    Back to the beginning…

1.    Revolution began in Hungary where folks want change (national autonomy, civil rights, universal suffrage)

2.    Folks take to the streets and emperor Ferdinand I wimps out and gives in

3.    Metternich took off running, in disguise, to London

4.    King had abolished serfdom so country folks were happy; city workers were not though, they wanted socialism/government workshops.  Therefore…

5.    The revolutionary coalition was unstable and not united

6.    A liberal, mostly democratic constitution is created; they’re nation-building.

7.    However, minority groups wanted to be autonomous. The bottom line here is that the revolutionaries are not in agreement on what they want to do. This hurts.

8.    The conservatives strike back.

a.    Sophia, married to emperor’s brother, fires up the conservatives

b.    Wants Ferdinand to abdicate to her son (or get him ousted)

c.    The army starts kicking tail among protestors

d.    Sophia’s son, Francis Joseph gets crowned emperor

e.    Russia (Nicholas I) lends his army to help crush the Hungarian countryside

III.          Prussia

A.    Liberals want to unite German provinces into unified nation with constitutional monarchy

B.    Fall of Louis Phillipe in France fires up the liberals…workers explode. Middle class liberals join the workers for now.

C.    Monarchy Frederick William IV caves in. He promised to make exactly what the liberals wanted above.

1.    Workers…wanted much more (socialism)

2.    Conservatives…wanted much less. What’s going to happen?

D.   Liberals set up a National Assembly to write a constitution

1.    They get bogged down in a legal issue with Denmark

2.    National Assembly appoints King Frederick William of Prussia emperor

3.    But, Frederick William gets back his “swagger” and disbands the National Assembly and reasserts “divine right”

4.    Frederick William tries to get the German provinces to unite under his emperorship, that fails.

5.    Germany would not unite as a republic, nor as an empire.

IV.          The bottom line of 1848 revolutions – In France, Austria, and Prussia, liberals and socialists try to raise revolutions, eventually they fail, and the conservatives get back control