I.             Modern Authoritarianism

A.    Conservative brand

1.    simply desired to prevent changes; mostly emerged in Eastern Europe

2.   as in old days, their tools: bureaucracy, police, army

3.   why?  (1) no strong self-government tradition  (2) ethnic conflicts  (3) landowners and church sought to solidify holdings

B.    Totalitarianism brand

1.    Total control over people’s lives at expense of personal liberty

2.   Began during WWI and held #1 objective of VICTORY

3.   Lenin’s lesson: motivated minority can oust apathetic majority

4.   Control of: politics, economics, social, intellectual, cultural aspects

5.   championed submission of individual to the state (shunned individualism)

6.   always had a mission/revolution/goal/enemy/ on the move

7.   Russia on left; Germany on the right

8.   Characteristics of Nazi Germany

a.    expansionist nationalism

b.   anti-socialist and anti-communist

c.   willing to work with business/capitalist if they serve state needs

d.   aggressive leader

e.   glorified military, war, and victory

II.           Soviet Union under Stalin

A.    1921 Bolsheviks won civil war; land is war-torn

B.   Lenin starts NEP (New Economic Policy) – limited capitalism for agriculture and industry; Effects: (1) got peasants on bandwagon  (2) brought economic recovery

C.   Lenin dies in 1924 – party struggle for power ensues

1.    Leon Trotsky is better leader and Red Army hero

2.   However, Josef Stalin is better party manipulator

3.   Stalin gets internal communist party allies, manipulated people to gain support within the party

4.   opted for Russian only communism, ridded the NEP

D.   Five-Year Plans

1.    goals focus on huge increase in heavy industry and ag

2.   the fundamental method: exploit the peasantry and funnel $ into industry

3.   peasants private land was collectivized through iron and blood (10mil)

4.   agriculture goal – not particularly successful (22% on only 4%)

5.   industrial goal – successful; massive 1/3 investment, urban migration, total control on the cutting edge; propaganda certainly helped

6.   terror machine – Stalin grows suspicious and orders killings, replaces bureaucracy with communist yuppies