I.             Prelude to 30 years of war

A.    Peace of Augsburg – (1) Lutheranism is OK, (2) the faith of prince is the faith of the people (Catholic or Lutheran)

B.    Other faiths spread – Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Anglican, Anabaptists, Jesuits

C.    Protestant Union vs. Catholic League – no territorial advances much anymore

D.   The Bohemian window tossing (“defenestration of Prague”)

II.           The Thirty Years War

A.    Phase 1 – Bohemian phase – Catholic League/Protestant Union take sides; Bohemians fought for independence from Habsburg rule; Protestants are crushed and forced to convert to Catholicism

B.    Phase 2 – Danish phase – Catholic army under Wallenstein destroys Protestants in German territory; Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issues Edict of Restitution (Catholic lands lost since 1552 were to be restored and there was to be only Catholic and Lutheran lands) and Wallenstein sets out to enforce it

C.    Phase 3 – Swedish phase – Swede Gustavus Adolphus (Prot.) won on German/Habsburg “front.” This stopped Habsburg growth to unite Germany.

D.   Phase 4 – French phase – Catholic France declares war on Spain (Spain was a Habsburg buddy with Austria); Why did France do this? Because France desired a split up (and thus weak) Germany.

E.    Peace of Westphalia—ends the 30 Years War. It’s provisions were…

1.    300 German princes

2.    Netherlands independent

3.    France got Alsace region

4.    Pope shut out of German religious affairs

5.    Augsburg agreement stands permanently, Calvinism legalized

F.    Germany left in ruins after the war (population down, economy weakened)

III.          Exploration

A.    Vikings poke westward, Ottoman Turks pose a threat from the East

B.    Portugal – goals: gospel, gold, spices, meet mythical “Prester John.” Prince Henry the Navigator starts a sailing Renaissance, Bartholomew Diaz reaches southern tip of Africa, Vasco da Gama rounds Africa to India, Pedro Cabral sails to Brazil and lays claim, Muslim ports in spice islands will fight to give it up.

C.    Technology – cannons, galleys vs. caravels, compass, astrolabe (shows latitude)

D.   Why the sailing revolution? – spread Christianity, opportunities limited at home, government sponsorship, Renaissance curiosity, spices, “Christians and spices.”

E.    Christopher Columbus

1.    Who? Religiously dominated man and a fine seaman.

2.    Goal? Find a direct ocean route to the East by sailing west.

3.    Achieved? No.  He misinterpreted results thinking he was in the “Indies.”

4.    Bad side of Columbus—Conquest of Indians and slavery of blacks followed.