I.             Imperial Russia ends – bottom line is Russia was doing so badly in WWI they want change

A.    WWI – Russia is “gung ho” at the beginning, but hits problems…

1.    poorly mobilized (rather old fashioned and backward)

2.    leadership problems – Duma vs. tsar Nicholas II

a.    Nicholas wanted complete control & wasn’t able to form partnership with citizens

b.    Fired minister of war which forced Duma to want more control

c.    Nicholas adjourned Duma and travels to front to manage war

3.    Meanwhile, back at the Kremlim

a.    Tsarina Alexandra becomes enraptured by Rasputin and his powers

b.    Aristocrats murder Rasputin to rid his influence; Tsarina haunted

4.    Revolution in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

a.    women call for bread and start riots

b.    spread to factories

c.    soldiers joined revolutionary crowd

d.    Duma declared provisional government

II.           Duma’s provisional government

A.    establishes classical liberal government – (equality under law, free religion, free speech, freedom of assembly, right to organize/unionize)

B.    Alexander Kerensky – became Prime Minister – refused to confiscate large landholdings (would hurt what was left of army), instead he wanted to focus on war efforts

C.    Provisional government had to share power with Petrograd Soviet (grass-root meetings)

a.    served as a watch-dog to provisional government. Ex. Army Order No. 1 – took military power from officers and gave it to common soldiers

b.    “voting with their feet” began

c.    this situation opens door for Lenin

III.          Vladimir Lenin & Bolsheviks

A.    Lenin influenced by Karl Marx & Communist Manifesto

a.    he wants a small, intellectual, revolutionary group; Bolsheviks

b.    opponents wanted a broader more democratic massive group; Mensheviks

B.    Lenin was in neutral Switzerland, but Germany “pays his way” back to Russia

C.    “All power to the Soviets”  “All land to the peasants”  “Stop the war now”

IV.          Leon Trotsky & seizing power

A.    Trotsky supports Lenin (Trotsky is a great politician)

B.    Bolsheviks get slim majority in Petrograd Soviet

C.    The coup d’etat

a.    Trotsky forms new military-revolutionary committee which he heads

b.    Nov 6, Trotsky trots military & seizes government buildings

c.    Force provisional government to announce power to Bolsheviks/Lenin

D.   Why Bolsheviks won…

1.    power was there for the taking

2.    great leadership

3.    appealed to many groups – soldiers, workers, tired of war

V.            Civil War

A.    Now, how do Bolsheviks keep power?

B.    Step 1 – gave land to peasants; workers demand control of factories

C.    Step 2 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (a separate peace for Russia) – Germany demanded Russia give up western territories; Lenin gets this approved

D.   Step 3 – promise of new government

1.    Bolsheviks said they were only a temporary & they’d have elections, but…

2.    elections didn’t go well, so results were tossed out

E.    Civil War – Reds vs. Whites (Reds win/Lenin wins b/c more centralized & better army)

F.    Step 4 – power with lean mean army, and total war, and Cheka (secret police)

VI.          German Revolution

A.    Notably – Germany loses WWI, have many different groups competing for power (liberals, socialists, radical communists)

B.    Radicals are squelched (literally arrested and executed – Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg)

VII.        Treaty of Versailles

A.    Big Four – Britain, France, Italy, US

B.    Britain & France want to punish Germany, Italy wants spoils of victory, US wants to avoid future wars

C.    Britain/France agree to okay W. Wilson’s League of Nations; WW agrees to okay War Guilt Clause

D. US never joins league of nations & it fails; Germany is embarrassed and ruined by War Guilt