I.            Romanticism

A.    Turn away from classicism – Greek/Roman stuff, rationality of Enlightenment, order-balance-restraint

B.    Romanticism liked the emotions, imagination, spontaneity, people-oriented, big dreams!, contemplation

C.    Views on unknown, nature, modern industry, history

D.   Early romanticism

1.    Rousseau – the philosophe who advocated the human side of freedom

2.    Sturm und Drang – (Storm and Stress) the lifestyle of these folks was full of “sound and fury”

E.    Romantics

1.    William Wordsworth & Samuel Taylor Coleridge (poets)

2.    Walter Scott – (borrowed from von Goethe) Scottish tales of freedom

3.    Germaine de Stael – urged slowly romantic French to toss classicism

4.    Victor HugoHunchback of Notre Dame, very emotional and fantastic

5.    “George Sand” – cross dressing self-seeker

6.    brothers Grimm – German fairy tales

F.    Art – Joseph Turner & John Constable – painters of sea storms and landscapes

G.   Music – changed to hit the emotions; became an end in itself rather than just an accompaniment

a.    Franz Liszt

b.    Ludwig von Beethoven

II.           Political Changes

A.    The “isms” were clashing – liberalism, nationalism, socialism, vs. conservatism

B.    Greece

1.    Ottoman Turk rule –unified language & religion, revolt led by Alexander Ypsilanti, conservatives unhappy, Europeans like it though, Britain-France-Russia order/force Turkey to accept Greek independence in 1830

C.    Britain

1.    Corn Laws – (forbade importing foreign grain to England) were designed to keep profits coming, protest comes from poor. Gov’t cracks-down through no peaceable assembly, habeas corpus, free press, Battle of Peterloo squelches protest.

2.    Reform Bill 1832 – more folks vote, especially up north and in middle class

3.    People’s Charter” – Chartist movement, call for universal male suffrage; fails but eventually gets Corn Laws repealed

4.    Ten Hours Act – 10 hour workday for women and youth

D.   Ireland

1.    Irish continually held down by “the man” (Britain)

2.    Population growth – potato, early marriage

3.    Great Potato Famine – population decline

E.    France

1.    Louis XVIII and Constitutional Charter is rather liberal – revolutionary gains protected, freedom of thought and art, parliament with two houses

2.    Successor Charles X is a throwback to pre-1789 monarchy – mocks Constitutional Charter, strips middle class of voting, censors press…REVOLT!

3.    Loius Phillipe triumphantly placed on throne by middle class

4.    But…was there really any change?