I.            Anabaptists

A.    believe in adult-only baptism (no infants since they couldn’t make the decision to faith)

B.    must experience an inner light

C.    the individual churches ran their own matters

D.   church and state were separated

E.    women were allowed into ministry

F.    were pacifists, stressed meekness, attractive to poor & downtrodden

II.           English Reformation

A.   Lollards

1.    were driven underground

2.    attractive to commoners, stressed individual reading of the Bible

3.    disliked stress on sacraments, clergy, wealth, veneration of saints, prayers for dead, war

4.    William Tyndale – translated New Testament into English; largely educated populace all through England who read it

B.   Henry VIII

1.    wants a divorce

2.    Parliament passes…

a.    Act of Restraint – king is supreme legal authority

b.    Act of Submission – churchmen must submit to king

c.    Supremacy Act – the king was head of Church of England

3.    dissolved English monasteries and $ went to lords

4.    Church of England became a mix of Catholic/Protestant faith and practices

5.    1st bureaucracy formed for the state and church

6.    Book of Common Prayer written so all churches were “on same page”

7.    Mary Tudor – (succeeds Henry VIII)

a.    swings England back to Catholicism

b.    unpopular b/c (1) she’s married to Philip of Spain, son of Charles V and (2) she killed 100s of Protestants (“Bloody Mary”)

8.    Elizabeth – succeeds Mary

a.    She was a shrewd politician

b.    She was Protestant, but didn’t worry what your faith was

c.    Elizabethan Settlement” – stressed outward conformity to Church of England

III.          Elsewhere

A.    Scotland

1.    John Knox takes Protestantism to Scotland as Presbyterianism

2.    He lived/trained in Geneva as strict Calvinist; he exported the faith

B.    Ireland

1.    #1, the Irish hate the English

2.    England tries to force Protestantism onto Ireland à Church of Ireland (modeled after Church of England) implanted but only the ruling English minority take it

3.    Irish people stay Catholic in defiance, largely b/c they hate the English

4.    Catholicism goes underground and church property is seized

C.    Sweden, Norway, Denmark

1.    monarchs bring in Lutheranism in state churches

2.    Olaus Petri – translates New Testament into Swedish

IV.          Catholic Reformation and Counter Reformation

A.    Catholic Reformation = before 1517 (95 Theses) religious fervor; Counter Reformation = after 1540s within the Catholic church

B.   Council of Trent

1.    attempt to reform & reconcile with Protestants

2.    Luther/Calvinists insist on Scriptural discussion only

3.    Charles V didn’t want to anger German princes and lose land (remember Peace at Augsburg where German princes decide faith of their area)

4.    Similarly, France works against Catholics & Lutherans reconciliation because religious division kept Germany busted up and weak

5.    Question – council or pope, who’s the higher authority?  Basically, the pope wins b/c the council still needed the pope’s approval

6.    Outcomes

a.    scripture and tradition are the authority

b.    7 sacraments are upheld

c.    transubstantiation upheld (these 3 are regular Catholicism, anti-Lutheran)

d.    clergy must reside in district they’re appointed (no absenteeism)

e.    no pluralism, simony, indulgences, concubines

f.     must go to seminary, study preaching, instruct the laity

g.    need a witness in marriages to avoid confusion (these 4 are new)

V.            New Things

A.    The Ursuline – nuns educate women, help poor, teach girls/women (they hold cradle of Christianity)

B.    Jesuits – missionaries of the pope who spread Catholicism to the four corners of the earth; they live lives of poverty, chastity, simplicity; they were very successful missionaries

C.    Holy Office – Roman Inquisition ferrets out non-Catholics in Rome; ruthless tactics were used such as hearsay being okay, no habeas corpus, torture techniques; though brutal, it was successful