I.             Population

A.    see graph page 637

B.    reasons – birth and/or death rate

II.           Cottage Industry

a.    old medieval method of production – strictly regulated urban craft guilds

b.    new 18th century method – “cottage industry”

c.    lots of folks landless and seeking a job (population graph)

d.    characteristics of cottage industry – rural/urban, hand tools, wage workers, predecessor of factory system, not exactly a craftman’s shop but not exactly a factory

III.        Putting-Out System

A.    Two parties involved – (1) rural worker and the (2) merchant (likely in town)

B.    Merchant puts out raw materials to rural workers. They work it, return to merchant to be sold. Worker receives wages.

C.    Labor – abundant and therefore cheap, unregulated and therefore free to act

D.   England 1700 – mostly putting-out system; France curtailed urban industry/reduced guilds; meanwhile championed rural manufacturing

IV.          Classic example – textiles

A.    English mercantilism – help the state AND individuals

B.    Navigation Acts – British ships (only) haul goods

C.    Take aim at the Dutch – economic war, NY

D.   England vs. France

1.    War of Spanish Succession – France loses colonial lands to Britain

2.    War of Austrian Succession – they fight again, no territorial change

3.    Seven Years’ War (aka. French and Indian War in America) – France booted out of North America, Florida goes to Britain, Louisiana goes to Spain, France gives up on India