APE

 

I.             Nazi rise

A.    mad about Locarno (Fr/Ger border) and Versailles (War Guilt Clause)

1.    quietly rebuild at first

2.    1933 – leaves disarmament conference; leaves League of Nations

3.    1935 – declares Versailles “null and void”

B.    Britain decides on appeasement – guilty feelings, ear horror, $, belief that communism was enemy and Hitler may actually help

1.    Anglo-German naval agreement

2.    1936 – Germany occupies Rhineland – France mad; Britain complacent

C.    Mussolini attacks Ethiopia – only Hitler gives OK – Rome-Berlin Axis is born and soon joined by Japan

D.   Spanish Civil War – mini WWII (republicans vs. fascists and dictator Ferdinand Franco) and testing ground for Hitler’s war machine

E.    Austria 1938 – threat scares Austrian gov’t into putting Nazis in control; Hitler rolls in unopposed

F.    Sudentenland 1938 – Hitler wants it because they’re German speakers

G.   Munich Conference – Brit. P.M. Neville Chamberlain appeases Hitler with the Sudetenland…announces “peace for our time”

H.    Czechoslovakia 1939 – Hitler rolls in and breaks his promise; Slovak puppet gov’t set up

I.     1939 – Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (aka. Russo-German Non-Aggression) – Stalin surprises everyone with his deal with Germany; this opens the door for Germany to attack Poland

J.     Poland Sept. 1, 1939 – Hitlers blitzkrieg rolls into Poland

K.    Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, 1940

L.    Dunkirk, France rescue; Paris and France taken

M.   Battle of Britain – air battle – phase 1 Hitler bombs airfields; phase 2 he bombs cities to break morale of people; Winston Churchill holds Brits together

N.   Russia 1941 – master race plans force Hitler to attack Russia, thankfully, the winter sets in to halt Nazis

II.           More Nazi stuff

A.    New Order – Germans at top, Dutch/Norwegian/Danes second b/c related to Germans, French subordinated b/c “inferior” Latin people to be heavily taxed to pay for war; Slaves despised and to be ridded to clear liebensraum for Germans

B.    Holocaust

1.    Poles, Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, communists to be killed

2.    phase 1 – unofficial discrimination

3.    phase 2 – Nuremberg laws are official discrimination

4.    phase 3 – violence at Kristallnacht

5.    phase 4 – ghettos round up Jews

6.    phase 5 – concentration camps/end of ghettos

7.    phase 6 – death camps

8.    numbers – 6,000,000 Jews and 11,000,000 people total killed

III.          Winning the War

A.    US/Britain/Soviet Union seek “unconditional surrender”

B.    Churchill opts for Europe 1st, attack through “soft underbelly” of Italy

C.    US provides people and production, Britain provides production and staging ground, Russia provides people and determination

D.   1942 – turning point year

1.    Midway Island – US stops Japans and starts pushing them back

2.    El Alamein – Brits stop Germans in North Africa (save Suez Canal)

3.    Stalingrad – Russians stop Germans in Southeast Europe

E.    Italy 1943 – US runs in; Mussolini booted out by people and rescued temporarily by Germans; Germans retain northern 1/2 of Italy

F.    D-Day – June 6, 1944 – amphibious assault into northern France

G.   Allied vice grip squeezes life out of Germany

H.    Germany surrenders; A-bomb on Japan ends Pacific war