I.             Global inequality

A.    Imperial model – mother country and colony

B.    See graph p. 856

C.    Check these marks: 1750, 1860, 1950, 1970

D.   The West CREATE or STEAL wealth?

II.           World Market

A.    19th century trade booms

B.    1913 value of trade $38 B / 25 times value in 1800; prices of manufactured goods was lower

C.    Big winner – Britain

1.    1st to industrialize…can make things for cheap!

2.    European and U.S. tariffs go up…new markets are thus sought out

3.    Repeal of Corn Laws, Britain also biggest market to sell grain

D.   Transportation “shortens” distances

1.    RR

2.    steamboat

3.    refrigerator cars and boats

4.    Panama and Suez canals

E.    Investment by Europe

III.          China and the west

A.    Chinese view of west

B.    Canton – the required city for living for foreigners

C.    Opium – illegally smuggled in by British, war erupts, China loses (Treaty of Nanking)

1.    Hong Kong goes to Britain

2.    $100 M paid to Britain

3.    4 large cities opened to trade

4.    Side note – China loses round 2 and more cities are opened up

IV.          Japan unsecured "wide open"

A.    japan’s view of Europe

B.    America’s view of japan

C.    Commodore Matthew Perry “opens”(in other words, japan humiliatingly accepts surrender) japan to international trade

V.            Egypt

A.    Foreign rule has been the tradition (Turks, French)

B.    Muhummad Ali begins modernization

1.    European army

2.    Government reformed, new lands farmed

3.    Europeans attracted for myriad of reasons, centering around chance to make $

4.    Commercial agriculture – good for nation, bad for peasants (no longer work their “own” land, rather for a landlord to sell crops)

C.    Ismail

1.    Westernizing autocrat

2.    Irrigation system, Suez canal, boulevards, hotels

3.    Debt! – Britain & France intervene to ensure bondholders will be paid (new tactic of political/economic rule rather than military might)

4.    Nationalistic reaction – Egyptian Nationalist Party, revolt yet are defeated by Brit forces

5.    Khedive (prince) left as mere puppet to Europe

D. Peasants’ result (+), Europe’s result (+), bondholders’ result (+), nationalists’ result (-)