I.             Work conditions

A.    Early on, unappealing to rural wage earners

B.    Boring, monotonous, looked like a poorhouse, whistle-work, not used to regiment (cottage industry…work ‘til Saturday/payday, party ‘til Tuesday, catch up ‘til Saturday)

C.    Abandoned pauper children as labor/exploitation

D.   Need for labor – entire families would go to work

E.    Eventually, reform measures; Parliament forbids pauper “apprentices”

F.    Robert Owen says kids working under 10 hurts health

G.   Factory Act of 1833 – under 9 in factory schools; 9-13 worked only 8 hours; 14-18 worked 12 hours

H.    Subcontracting – commonly done and usually the subcontractor had family or friends under him

II.           Women workers

A.    Men are the breadwinners; women at home; “separate spheres”

B.    Women unlikely to work full-time; if they did, it was in poor jobs

C.    Why? Sexism, pregnancies and small children make holding a job difficult, conscious separation of sexes b/c adolescents intermingled at work – this mixing and mingling was believed to lead to… (long walks in the woods to pick wildflowers)

D.   Mines Act of 1842 – forbade underground work for women and young boys; picture p. 753

E.    Many women welcomed the role of homemaker

III.          Labor Movement

A.    1850, Britain still: most folks farmed, 2nd largest job was domestic servant

B.    Hand tool crafts in small shops still operating; example of iron industry

C.    Unions

1.    workers began to see themselves as a collective group

2.    strikes result; British government sees unions, guilds, monopolies etc. as unnatural “combinations” contrary to laissez-faire liberal economics (capitalism)

3.    Combination Acts of 1799 – forbade such groups, but largely it was ignored; repealed in 1824

4.    Robert Owen

a.    very progressive – disciplined workers yet concern for health, safety, hours

b.    see The Crisis p. 749

c.    sought utopian experiment in New Harmony, IN (failed)

d.    sought national labor union – Grand National Trades Union (failed)

e.    started – Amalgamated Society of Engineers as a skilled machinist union (successful)

5. Chartist movement – wanted all men to have the right to vote