I.             Stats

A.    In 1750 – all nations were closely “industrialized”; by 1830 – clear British dominance; feisty Belgium; German ascendance late; American dominance eventually

II.           Hurdles to Industrialization

A.    French Revolution brought upheaval on the continent, inflation

B.    Technicians outside of England did not understand technology

C.    Steam had become expensive

D.   Required RR

E.    Shortage of labor force

F.    Suspicion of change lurked in landowners and governments

III.          1815 times were ready

A.    Putting-out system had developed many skilled workers

B.    Could simply borrow/steal technology

C.    Strong governments could motivate the revolution

IV.          The spread of the Industrial Revolution

A.    English try to keep monopoly

B.    William Cockerill – emigrates to Belgium and starts heavy industry

C.    Fritz Harkot – Ruhr Valley, at his expense he imported heavy equipment, built/sold steam engines, financial loss

D.   Tariff fever – governments sought to protect their nations against the British goods

E.    Governments very interested in constructing railroads (Belgium, Prussia, France)

F.    Joseph List – German who argued that an agricultural nation was in danger essentially; unable to defend and remain independent; his solution was to build RR’s and make a tariff

G.   economic nationalism” --  high protective tariffs!

H.    Banks reorganize into corporate banks – limited liability!; Credit Mobilier

V.            New Classes

A.    (1) workers and (2) factory owners/operators

B.    Friedrich Engels – English forerunner of Karl Marx; accusation of middle class as creating horrendous conditions for workers; “culprit” was industrial capitalism with its cutthroat, dog-eat-dog mentality

C.    Stats

1.    per capita purchasing power slightly increased

2.    ate more food with more nutrition

3.    seemingly, the overall standard of living increased slightly