I.             Hundred Years War

A.    background – Queen Isabella and her love triangle; Edward III; Charles IV/Philip IV; Salic Law prohibits females from holding office

B.    Causes of the War

                                          i.    Land dispute – Acquitane is English vassalage to France; Philip VI takes it for France; Edward III claims to be the rightful heir of France; French “Civil War”

                                         ii.    Wool trade – critical for Flanders; aristocracy (landowners) supported France and merchants (businessmen) supported England

C.    popular response – the English people’s reason for fighting was to put the English king on the French throne; propaganda; opportunities for jobs, get booty, pardons

D.   Chivalry is dead! – view of battle as glorious; knights vs. knights (no commoners)

E.    The fighting

                                          i.    Bottom line – England won rounds 1,2,3,4 and France won 5 and 6 (see map)

                                         ii.    Crecy – English longbows, knights killed by commoners, canons

                                        iii.    Poitiers – Edward the Black Prince used similar “uncivilized” tactics to win

                                       iv.    Agincourt – Henry V wins despite being outnumbered; Normandy taken

                                        v.    Joan of Arc – hears voices; dauphin is convinced of her; she’s allowed to join army; took lead at Orleans; English low on supplies…run out; dauphin crowned as King Charles VII; Joan captured, tried, burnt as a witch

F.    Costs

                                          i.    France – population drop, land torn up, trade drop, peasants dissatisfied

                                         ii.    England – Black Death population/economy was beneficial, knights were absent and therefore no “police”, taxes on wool go up, exports go down

                                        iii.    The myth of winners getting the booty (it doesn’t happen)

                                       iv.    Representation

1.    England – Parliament gets a boost as the king constantly had to call for money from legislative assemblies; “Purse strings” emerges where the legislative reps can give/withhold $ to the king

2.    France – no one wanted a national assembly: people thought locally, monarchy were too weak to call assembly, provincial assemblies were jealous; a national assembly would likely mean higher taxes anyway

G.   Boost of nationalism

II.           Church Prestige

A.    Babylonian Captivity – 1309-1376 hurts church prestige

B.    Gregory XI moves papacy back to Rome, but he dies

C.    #1 – Urban VI elected; Urban lashes out at simony, pluralism, absenteeism, extravagance; ticks people off

D.   #2 – Clement VII elected for Avignon; Great Schism results

E.    Political alignment (France sided with F/R?, England with F/R?, Scotland with F/R?, Italy with F/R?) ; people’s response was confusion

F.    Conciliar (council) Movement

                                         i.    Marsiglio – wrote Defensor Pacis where he argues that church is below the state, church should own no property, a council is superior to the pope, he gets excommunicated

                                         ii.    John Wyclif – papal power was not Scriptural, bad practices (veneration of saints, pilgrimages, pluralism, absenteeism), urged people to read the Bible, church property should be stripped, “Lollards” and women preached

G.   #3 – Pisa council deposes both popes, but the third is not recognized

H.    #4 – Martin V elected by council

                                          i.    goals: end the fiasco, reform, no heresy

                                         ii.    Martin dissolves council and reform ends

I.     The Bottom Line of the Great Schism – the church’s respect is severely hurt