APE

I.             Review – need $, Estates General, National Assembly, Tennis Court

II.           On to the Bastille!

A.    Economic hardships motivate – bread price, depression, unemployment, 1/8 pauper, dismissal of moderate finance minister = fear, crowds!, passion!, seize arms!, “Hey! There’s the Bastille!”

B.    July 14, 1789 – Bastille sacked; Marquis de LaFayette named to head city army; this cut king’s army/authority

C.    Country revolt spawned – violence, burning, feudal records, “Great Fear” makes nobles give in an inch, peasants take a mile – never pay feudal dues henceforth!

III.          Political Changes

A.    National Assembly issues Declaration of the Rights of Man

1.    Natural Rights – liberty, property, security, no oppression allowed, innocent ‘til…, free speech and press

2.    Social contract – right to participate in the “general will”

3.    Again, theory is easy, practical nuts-n-bolts prove tough; namely, how much power should king keep?

B.    7,000 women are mad as ____. (Somebody better get out the way.)

1.    Need food, increasingly jobless, nobles had bugged out taking their market with them

2.    Women march to Versailles looking for royal family

3.    “Agree” to let the family return to Paris

4.    National Assembly follows to Paris

a.    neutralized nobility as legal order

b.    set up constitutional monarchy where king stays but all legislative power was in Assembly

c.    reforms – SOME women’s rights, still no political participation, 83 departments, metric system, economic liberalism (no monopolies, guilds, unions as they impede true capitalism)

d.    religion – religious freedom granted, Catholic church lands seized to be collateral for paper money, loyalty oaths demanded of priests creates dissent; elite – yes to oaths, commoners – keep as it is

IV.          World War France

A.    Ideals spread to Britain

1.    conservatives worry – Edmund Burke –  Reflections on the Revolution in France – calls for retention of Parliamentary system; fear of chaos

2.    liberals – Mary Wollstonecraft – A Vindication of the Rights of Man/Woman – reflects French ideals; expands ideals of women to understand that all humans are created equal and have natural rights

B.    Austria and Prussia – Declaration of Pillnitz – try to scare the French revolutionaries with the threat of intervention…it backfires!

C.    National Assembly to Legislative Assembly

1.    LA has no NA members; LA is younger and more aggressive in group called “Jacobins”

2.    Accept foreign challenge and go on anti-tyranny crusade (declare war)

3.    Meanwhile, royal rumors of treason…

4.    Royal residence at Tuileres, king flees, captured, suspended, imprisoned

D.   Legislative Assembly becomes National Convention

1.    September Massacre – rumors of aristocratic “actions” while in prison; folks break in and kill 1/2

2.    Girondists and Mountain

a.    Girondists are somewhat moderate

b.    Mountain (Robespierre) are more radical

3.    Royalty convicted and executed

4.    French army killing feudalism in other countries; also creating enemies by living off the land

5.    National Convention declares war on Britain, Holland, Spain

6.    NC division grows – both Girondists and Mountain fear one another

a.    economics motivates again – sans culottes respond to inflation, unemployment, food shortages…demand ACTION!

b.    Girondists and Mtn. Initially no, then Mtn. Joins sans culottes; arrest Girondists and take over the NC

c.    Committee on Public Safety instituted (Robespierre)

d.    Revolt erupts across France against these actions; Paris and the army now fought French provincial “armies”