I.             Politics, religion, and war

A.    In the 16th & 17th centuries, religion and politics were intertwined à there was one king and one church

B.    A new kind of war emerged (with big armies, gunpowder, cannons, propaganda).

II.           France’s troubles

A.    Recovery after Great Plague & Hundred Years War continued – the peasants benefited due to labor shortage, trade increased as well. But…

B.    Francis I

1.    Brought in a tax for the army but needed more money. So…

2.    …(1)he sold public offices, & (2)cut a deal with pope, the Concordat of Bologna (supremacy of pope in exchange for the right of France to appoint clergy).

1.    This essentially made Catholicism official in France.

3.    Lutheranism, and especially Calvinism, spread due to an aloof clergy. These French Protestants were called Huguenots.

C.    Henry II had weak sons/leaders…disorder follows.

D.   The nobility seized the moment to combat one another and Catholic royal lords go up against Protestant anti-royal lords.

E.    Upper classes – this was a power struggle; lower class – this was a religious struggle

F.    Huguenots and St. Bartholomew Day massacre…initial goal was marriage and reconciliation of Catholics/Protestants, but the result was the War of the Three Henrys

G.   Politiques – believed only a strong monarchy could restore peace.

H.    Henry IV becomes Catholic, issued the Edict of Nantes which granted Huguenots freedom to worship, and thus calms France.

III.          Netherlands

A.    It consisted of 17 independent provinces. The economy was based on international trade. The geography was such that they were the Low Countries and blessed with rivers.

B.    Luther/Calvin influence spreads into the northern provinces, but not so much in the southern areas nearer to France.

C.    This was the scene when Charles V steps down and hands Netherlands to Philip (who is Spanish).

D.   Philip’s half sister Margaret vows to stop Protestants in Netherlands. But, she raised taxes very high which angered folks and mixed dislike of tax with her repression of Protestantism. In other words, she fired up the radicals.

E.    The poor start a rampage of “idols” by Protestants. Fancy churches were viewed as idolatry.

F.    Philip sent 20,000 troops who rendered justice in the “Council of Blood” where 1,500 were executed.

G.   Ten years of war ensued. Alexander Farnese (Philip’s nephew) fought William of Orange who’d united the provinces. Farnese reclaims the southern half of the country.

H.    Northern (Protestant) and Southern Netherlands (Catholic) result (see map)

I.     The North asks Elizabeth for help, she agrees b/c (1) wool trade, (2) murder of William the Silent (Wm. of Orange) removed the check of Farnese, (3) possible sweep into Northern Netherlands and even England (?)

IV.          Spanish Armada

A.    Philip II’s “mad crib” – The Escorial, part home, cathedral, mausoleum

B.    British Problem” – Mary Queen of Scots (Cath.) secretly planned to assassinate her cousin Elizabeth (Prot.). Philip offered his backing. Mary was found out & beheaded. The Pope offered to pay for a Spanish invasion of England to settle the British problem.

C.    Spanish Armada à Spain attacks but is defeated by England in 1588. This is a major turning point in history.