I.            Nationalism & quick review

A.   Defined: desire by a group that identifies themselves as unique to form a national

B.   Revolutions of 1848 (the people rise and fall without much change

C.   Romanticism gives way to Realism (Germany's realpolitck)

D.  Early nationalism was classically liberal (liberty, equality, democracy, etc.); later 1800s it could take any of several forms (liberal, democratic, radical, dictatorial, conservative, fascist, communist, authoritarian, etc.)

II.          France

III.       Louis Napoleon, Bonaparte's nephew, is in charge after Dec. 1848 elections. He won due to...(1) his name, (2) fear of Marxians or Socialists, and (3) he had a plan written out.

IV.        He had good intentions to help the people and believed a strong ruler was the best to offer that.

V.           He'd be considered somewhat socialist (wanted government to be active in the economy). But he had to share power with conservative National Assembly. So...

A.   he conspires with the army to pull off...

B.   a coup d'etat and kicked out the Assembly then asked for all males to validate this action (they did with 90+

VI.          4. Emperor Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) Second Empire

1.    Success – with the economy in banks, railroads, public works, rebuilding of Paris, unemployment decline

2.    Socialist measures – regulated pawn shops, support credit unions, better housing, right to unionized and strike

3.    Sought to reorganize Europe along nationalist ideas and gain influence/territory for France in doing so.

4.    As public sentiment moved away from his strong leadership, he moved too. He began to move toward democracy and more authority to the Assembly

5.    Bottom line – France goes to a strong authoritarian government toward a democracy in his later days.

VII.        III. Italy

1.   Remember – Italy has been busted up into city-states (see map in text)

2.   Generally, the north is modern and the south is “backwoodsy.” Rome/church dominates the middle.

3.   Goal of national unity gets going in early 1800s with 3 approaches... (1) Mazzini – democratic republic, (2) Giobertti – federation of city-states with Pope at the head, and (3) autocracy of Sardinia-Piedmont led by Victor Emmanuel.

4.   It's tricky! So, here's the bottom line – Cavour (from Sardinia) sought unity for northern & central Italy. He worked a deal with Napoleon III to take over northern Italy, but Napoleon III traded sides. Cavour's mad! Meanwhile, central Italy liked what they saw in Cavour and joined Sardinia. Double meanwhile, Garibaldi takes over Sicily and heads northward. Symbolically, the two side join up when Garibaldi (south) and Victor Emmanuel  (north) shake hands. Whew!

VIII.       IV. Germany

a.   Initially, “Germany” was made up of Austria and Prussia.

b.   William I (Prussia) sees need for army reforms.

c.   The king however gets into a tug-o-war with parliament over the military and its strength.

d.   Otto von Bismarck takes over.

e.   Tough, pragmatic, military-oriented, said gov't doesn't need parliament.

f.    “Blood and iron.”

g.   He goes on into action without the parliament.

h.   Goes into Austro-Prussian War, wins, and gives a lenient terms for peace. It was simply to make a statement and show Prussia was apart from Austria's influence.

i.     Later sets up the North German Confederation – it's a confederation – local governments' retain authority but share it with a national authority (president)

j.    Goes into the Franco-Prussian War and wins, and gives harsh terms for peace. Namely, a fine is placed on France and the Alsace-Lorraine region goes to Germany. (This is a WWI sticking point later on).