I.             Backup à (1) Solidarity and (2) Perestroika, glasnost, democratization

II.           1989

A.    Poland

                                          i.    Economic collapse drives communists to talks – Solidarity legalized, free elections

                                         ii.    Solidarity wins most seats leading to a stalemate

                                        iii.    Lech Walesa gets some pro-communists to side with him to “take” government

                                       iv.    Non-communist leader chosen – Solidarity government rids secret police, communist leadership dismantled in step by step fashion to avoid the Soviet army

                                        v.    Economically – sought to move away from government planning and toward private property; no price controls

B.    Hungary plays the role of revolving door

                                          i.    1956 – squelching by Russia

                                         ii.    the tacit agreement – minor liberalization for promise of obedience

                                        iii.    opposition grew – communists agree to free elections; too confident they’ll win

                                       iv.    Hungarians open border to E. German “vacationers”; they got to Austria, then W. Ger.

C.    East Germany

                                          i.    Massive exodus

                                         ii.    Intellectual types seek to rectify socialism at home; exodus persists

                                        iii.    Government gives up and opens Berlin Wall, November 1989

                                       iv.    Communist leaders removed; free elections scheduled

D.   Czechoslovakia

                                          i.    “Velvet Revolution” – 10 day removal of communist leaders

                                         ii.    How to kick out commies? à masses take to the streets and make demands (want control, resignations)

                                        iii.    Czech assembly elects Vaclav Havel

E.    Romania – the sole violent reaction

                                          i.    Dictator Nicalae Ceausescu was schooled in the Stalinist mode

                                         ii.    Protest ensues, orders military to kill dissidents

                                        iii.    Revolt results, military is defeated, Ceausescu and wife are killed

                                       iv.    Coalition government results

III.          Soviet Union busts up

A.    question – would the Soviet Union follow others or would it just reform?

B.    Two hardliner headaches à reformers and nationalism in republics

C.    Elections occur and communists lose handily to non-communists

D.   Also, Lithuania elects its own president, declares independence; Will USSR use force?

E.    Gorbachev enacts economic embargo, doesn’t use force

F.    Government changes – Gorbachev gets communist monopoly out, more power to Congress of People’s Deputies, himself as president

G.   Boris Yeltsin – liked democratization, universal suffrage

H.    Yeltsin elected leader, then president of Russia and declared Russian independence

I.     Gorbachev proposed looser confederation; rejected by republics

J.     Communist hardliners attempt a vacation coup d’etat on Gorbachev; people did not support the coup; ironically, Yeltsin is the hero to save Gorbachev

K.    Political tug-o-war with Yeltsin/Gorbachev; pendulum had swung to Yeltsin who declared independence and ended Soviet Union, Christmas 1991

L.    “Commonwealth of Independent States” results

IV.          German question

A.    “Third way” – somewhere between Stalinism and rampant capitalism; fails

B.    The 3 factors for unification…

                                          i.    The exodus – 9,000,000 had left (1/2 the population)

                                         ii.    Good politics – W. German chancellor Helmut Kohl proposed step by step plan; offers 1 for 1 mark exchange (good for E. Germany); political party “Alliance for Germanyh” wins leaders in elections

                                        iii.    Russia situation smoothed – Kohl/Gorbachev make agreement assuring peaceful intentions of Germany

V.            Paris Accord

A.    22 European nations, Russia, US

B.    reduce military, all borders are valid, effectively the “treaty” for ending the Cold War

VI.          Persian Gulf War I (Desert Storm)

A.    1991, Saddam Hussein of Iraq storms in tiny Kuwait

B.    George HW Bush gets UN and international community to denounce him; UN okayed force

C.    Massive UN (US) foreces push Iraq out of Kuwait

D.   “New World Order” proclaimed by Bush